More often than not, people have no doubt that they have the human papilloma virus (HPV) in their body. This is due to the fact that the papilloma virus is usually present in a latent form, suppressed by natural immunity. Problems arise when it gets out of control and begins to actively manifest itself in the form of growths on different parts of the body. Men are less likely to suffer from the effects of the virus than women, but their effect for them can turn into serious problems in the form of papillomas on the penis.
Viral DNA enters the body through microcracks in the skin or mucous membranes. If a man’s immunity is weakened, the first manifestations of HPV will appear a few months after the infection.
Up to 80% of transmissions occur sexually. Barrier contraception reduces the risk of infection, but does not completely eliminate it.
Other ways of infection:
- Household path.The virus is transmitted together with the personal belongings of the infected person: clothes, hygiene supplies, etc. The risk of transmission increases if the skin is damaged, even less. This pathway is characterized by infection with low-oncogenic virus types. They do not lead to serious health problems, but appear in the form of genital warts, papillomas and warts, creating a cosmetic defect.
- From mother to child.If a mother is infected with HPV during pregnancy and childbirth and gives birth naturally, the baby is likely to be infected.
If a man has a good immune defense, the virus does not manifest and can remain in the body for a long time in a latent form. Therefore, it is not a dangerous infection with the virus itself, but a weakening of the immune system, which leads to the activation of HPV.
There are a number of factors that affect the ability of a virus to strengthen its position:
- chronic diseases;
- hormonal problems;
- wrongly chosen contraception or its complete absence;
- viral infections;
- alcohol, smoking or long-term use of antibiotics;
- frequent stress.
All these factors negatively affect the immune system. If there is not one provoking factor in a man's life, but several, it will lead to faster development of the papilloma virus.
Often papillomas appear only externally, however, in some casesnon-specific symptoms may occur:
- itching and stinging during intercourse;
- pain when touching papilloma;
- accumulation of urine in the folds of the penis;
- unpleasant odor in the affected area.
In addition, neoplasms can grow and affect not only the area of the penis, but also appear on the anus and pubis.
What do papillomas look like
Penile papilloma is a small neoplasm. It may appear on its own at first, but without proper treatment the number of papillomas increases. However, they can merge with each other.
These growths look like flesh-colored or pink cauliflower flowers. They are most often localized in the foreskin, head and frenum. They are less commonly diagnosed in the urethra and scrotum. Papillomas can also appear as small white pimples that appear in long rows. This shape is typical for localization in the bridle area.
One of the manifestations of HPV are Buschke-Levenshtein warts. It is characterized by fast growth, extraordinary size and resistance to various types of treatments. Its appearance is due to several existing papillomas and warts, which merge to form one large area of lesions. The presence of Buschke-Levenshtein condyloma is dangerous because the cells that change it can easily develop into cancer.
Which doctor to contact
A urologist usually deals with the diagnosis of papillomas in men. You can also seek advice from a dermatovenerologist or proctologist if you have genital warts in the anal area. However, papillomas are usually referred to a surgeon for removal. In total, the diagnosis takes place in several stages:
- The urologist examines and interviews the patient.Oral examination is necessary to assess the patient's lifestyle and determine the cause of the virus infection. Visual examination includes not only the assessment of the condition of the penis, but also the neighboring organs - the scrotum, the anal area. This is necessary to complete the picture of the localization of the virus.
- Urethral smear.Determines the presence of various sexually transmitted diseases.
- PCR. This analysis not only shows the presence of HPV in the body, but also most likely determines its type.
- Meatoscopy.This procedure is an examination of the urethra if the papilloma virus has infected the frenum.
- After papilloma removal, the doctor may order a biopsyto assess the condition of the removed tumor. This is necessary to eliminate the risk of developing cancer and to ensure that the papilloma is benign.
In this case, it is advisable to conduct a survey of both partners. Usually, a woman is also infected with one of the types of papilloma virus. If only a man is treated, it is very likely that he will get sick again after a while.
Why papillomas are dangerous
Human papilloma virus is often accompanied by other related diseases. The appearance of papillomas in the area of the glans penis contributes to the accumulation of urine in the folds. This creates the conditions for the emergence and growth of various microorganisms, which later leads to infections. They can cause erosion around the papilloma and also contribute to inflammation of the urethra and testicles. These diseases are characterized by problems with urination, pain and high fever.
Another danger is tumor trauma, which leads to bleeding. This is due to the fact that many blood vessels form around the papilloma that supply them with blood. Even minor damage can lead to infection due to injury.
Also, neoplasms can rub when moving, which causes pain and discomfort to the man.
HPV and cancer
When the virus is just beginning to spread, the tumors are sporadic and benign. Without treatment, they grow and merge with each other. Over time, the cells degenerate into malignant.The risk of cancer is especially high if a man is infected with highly oncogenic types of the virus - 16 or 18.They are the ones who contribute to the appearance of penile and bladder cancer.
Treatment of papillomas
Treatment of HPV involves not only eliminating its external manifestations, but also strengthening the immune system, which should block the manifestations of the virus.Immunostimulatory drugs are used to maintain immunity.
As an antiviral drug, an effective ointment suppresses virus replication and removes small growths. It does not always cope with the task of complete removal, but it prevents the appearance of new growths. Antiviral ointment is prescribed to boost immunity. The fat does not remove papillomas, but promotes the activation of the cells of the immune system, which stops their growth and development.
There are several ways to get rid of new growths that have appeared:
- Laser removal.Papilloma is exposed to a laser beam that completely burns the growth. In this place a crust is formed which subsides after a few weeks. The method is considered effective due to the absence of recurrence. Removal is performed under anesthesia. No bleeding, no scarring or scarring.
- Cryodestruction.Papillomas are exposed to liquid nitrogen. It currently freezes the desired area, the tumor on it collapses and dies. The disadvantage of this method is the inability to control the depth of the cryodestruction effect. At the site of the removed papilloma, a crust also remains, which disappears after a while.
- Radiosurgery.The principle of this method is similar to laser removal. Radio waves do not leave scars and scars, and the procedure is preceded by previous anesthesia with a special spray. After that there are no complications and the body recovers quickly.
- Electrocoagulation.Growth is affected by electric current, which causes the leg to be removed, after which the papilloma disappears. If necessary, superficial anesthesia may be given. The procedure takes a few minutes, is widespread and accessible. But this method can leave scars after healing.
- Surgical intervention.It is used in rare cases when the tumor becomes too large. It is done under anesthesia, has long healing and trauma. The method is good in that it allows you to remove the growth for histological examination.
The cost of each method depends on the complexity of the job, the size, and the number of papillomas being removed.
Before choosing a method, consult your doctor. He will tell you what is best to use in your situation, he will tell you in detail how the procedure is performed. Also, after removal of the neoplasm, it is desirable to take material for histology. This is necessary in order to determine whether the process of degeneration of benign neoplasms into malignant ones has begun. This method will help detect early changes in the cells and prevent the spread of cancer.