What are papillomas and what do they look like

Damage to the palm from papilloma

In this article, we will cover the following:

  • what are papillomas;
  • what is the reason for their formation.
  • where they are more common in men and women;
  • typical papillomas.

Papillomas are benign neoplasms localized on the skin and mucous membranes. The reason for their occurrence is the human papilloma virus (HPV), which is transmitted in various ways. The appearance of the formations depends on the type of virus that caused them.

Transmission paths

The human papilloma virus is transmitted:

  • During sexual intercourse, including anal, oral-genital.
  • Household. The microorganism can exist on personal belongings, personal hygiene items, infected towels. Easily penetrates through scratches, scratches on the skin.
  • During childbirth from mother to child.

Possible autoinfections if the virus is transmitted from one area of ​​the body to another, which usually happens when shaving, hair removal.

The incubation period (the period from the entry of HPV into the body to the appearance of signs of pathology) ranges from a few weeks to several years.

Papillomas on the body most often occur in case of illness, pregnancy, alcohol abuse, psycho-emotional stress, hypothermia, accompanied by a decrease in immune protection. The frequency of these formations in men and women is the same.

Human papilloma virus

Human papilloma virus: types

Depending on the risk of oncological pathology on the skin, mucosal papilloma viruses belong to the following groups:

  • Low oncogenic risk (HPV 3, 6, 11, 13, 32, 34, 72, 73, 40–44, 51, 61 species).
  • Mean oncogenic risk (HPV types 52, 56, 58, 30, 35, 45).
  • High risk of developing malignant processes (HPV 50, 59, 16, 18, 64, 68, 70, 31, 33, 39 species).

Microorganisms with a low risk of cancer cause benign growths on the skin, mucous membranes.

Types of papillomas


A simple papilloma

They also call them vulgar, ordinary. Such growths are more often caused by HPV types 26-29, 77, 63, 41.

Tingling, tingling occurs on any part of the body. Later, the growth of a spherical formation is noticed, the surface of which gradually becomes rough. At first, the tumor is flesh-colored and then darkens. The size of the papilloma on the body is from 1 mm to cm

These neoplasms are single, multiple. In the latter case, the daughter's small papillomas are located around the mother, forming the first, usually the largest of all.

Their localization is the back of the hands, fingers, the space between them, the chin area, the edges of the lips. There are such papillomas on the neck. Children's knees are affected because children often crawl, they become infected through small lesions on the skin.


People with these formations are infected with HPV types 1, 2, 4. The growths are similar to dry calluses, but have a number of characteristic differences.

The skin sample is preserved on the calluses, absent on the surface of the papilloma, and the latter are smooth. The formation caused by the papilloma virus is painful, unpleasant sensations intensify when you wear tight shoes. Inside the papilloma, black spots were noticed, which are not present in the calluses.

Neoplasms sometimes self-destruct, which is more common in children. Sometimes small bubbles are visible around the tumor. The latter eventually turn into new papillomas.

Flat papillomas on the face

Flat papillomas

Growths of rounded, elongated, oval shape, rise above the level of the skin by 1-2 millimeters. Flat papillomas are localized around the mouth, on the face, and in the upper half of the body. Sometimes papillomas form on the neck.

There are data on papillomas on the lips, cervix in girls, penis in men, in the rectum, near the anus. These formations are located in groups, merging with each other. Flat fleshy papillomas, sometimes slightly darker than the rest of the skin, are formed under the influence of 10, 49, 28 varieties of papilloma virus.


If people notice that small papillomas have appeared on the neck, then the most common growths are threadlike. The other name of the formation isacrochordus. The latter are caused by 2, 7 types of HPV.

In the initial stage, the papillomas on the neck look like tiny yellowish seals, and then the growths stretch, become rough, acquire an elongated, round, filamentous shape. A distinctive feature of a similar papilloma on the neck is a thin leg.

Acrochord is most often formed in men, women older than 40 years. Growths also occur on the skin of the upper eyelids, armpits, mammary glands, in the intimate area.


Papilloma of the penis

The formation data are calledwarts,causing types 6, 11, 44, 42, 54, 51, 55, 89 types of human papilloma virus in women and men.

Condyloma is a small, single, multiple growths of fleshy color, localized on the female, male genitalia, around the anus. Papillomas exist in the vagina, labia minora, cervix. Condyloma in men is located on the skin, head of the penis, inside the urethra.

Separate elements sometimes merge with each other, a tumor-like tumor appears, resembling a rooster's comb on the outside, cauliflower. Neoplasms are characterized by very rapid growth, a broad lesion can form in a few hours.

Pathology recurring. It is more severe with concomitant sexually transmitted infections of the urogenital tract (eg chlamydia, gonorrhea, mycoplasmosis).

Condyloma that occurs on the cervix, especially inside the cervical canal, is most dangerous during pregnancy. Hormonal changes promote rapid growth, followed by tissue breakdown and secondary infection.

Papillomas in the mouth, larynx

Their appearance is related to the activity of papilloma virus 6, 7, 11, 72, 73, 57, 32 species. Formations are rounded formations on a thin or wide base. The mucosa around them is pale pink, with no visible pathological changes. The surface of the growth is pale pink, whitish.

Neoplasms are single, multiple, painless when pressed. They are located at the bottom of the oral cavity, the back of the tongue, the hard, soft palate, the laryngeal mucosa, the size ranges from 2 mm to 2 cm.

Papilloma of the larynx

Excessive growth of the mucous membrane of the mouth bleeds, if it bites, darkens as a result of bleeding into it. The health condition in the presence of such a disease does not worsen, the oral cavity opens freely.

When in adults the individual growths are located on the soft palate, tonsils, glands, there is a feeling of the presence of a foreign body, cough, the voice becomes hoarse. If the lesions become multiple, these symptoms worsen.

In children, pathological growths are often bilateral, their appearance is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Difficulty inhaling, exhaling, after physical exertion, and then at complete rest.
  • Cough after running, playing too much.
  • choking attacks withlaryngeal stenosis(pathological narrowing that prevents air from entering the lower respiratory tract).

The appearance of externally different papillomas is associated with infection by various types of HPV. To remove neoplasms, you must consult a doctor. This should be done as soon as possible if the papillomas are multiple, increase in size rapidly, cause discomfort and are constantly injured.