Human papilloma virus (HPV) leads to the growth of epithelium of the skin, mucous membranes of the anogenital region and the upper respiratory tract. Rarely affects the internal organs - esophagus, bronchi, rectum, bladder. As a result of the activity of the virus, various forms of neoplasms occur. Some of them are quite benign in nature, and some carry the risk of cancerous tumors. In which cases does a papilloma require special attention and removal? The article will talk about it.
The path of infection
Infection occurs after contact with a carrier of the virus, as well as with a sick person or animal. It is worth noting that an infected person may be completely absent with clinical manifestations of papillomatosis. Sometimes he doesn't even know about his infection. The penetration of the virus into the human body occurs through micro-damage to the skin or mucous membranes. Individual virus particles are sufficient for the development of the infectious process. The virus is able to maintain its sustainability in the environment. Therefore, self-infection is possible during hygienic procedures and in everyday life (shaving, epilation, combing the skin, self-injections). Swimming pools, swimming pools, gyms, etc. are considered to be the main public breeding grounds for the transmission of the infection. Mass illnesses have been reported in school children. A newborn can become a carrier of human papilloma virus infection when it passes through the mother's birth canal.
Types of HPV
Currently, scientists have identified about 180 types of HPV, of which 29 strains are considered oncogenic. Depending on the oncogenic potential, they are divided into viruses:
- low degree of oncoactivity (types 6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81),
- average degree of oncoactivity (types 26, 31, 33, 35, 51, 52, 53, 58, 66)
- high degree of oncoactivity (16, 18, 39, 45, 56, 59, 68, 73, 82).
According to the latest data, one or another strain of human papilloma virus can be found in the blood of about 80% of the world's population. However, this does not mean that all infected people have papillomatosis. What factors cause the development of the disease?
Immunity and papilloma
Why do some people lose the virus without a trace from the body, others stay for life without consequences, and others lead to the formation of papillomas? HPV is an infection that is quite capable of suppressing the immune system. In healthy people and in carriers of the virus, a strong immune system has been observed that suppresses the multiplication of foreign agents. The special role of cellular immunity has been confirmed. It blocks the persistence of the virus at its level (ability to remain active for a long time outside the acute phase), and in some cases contributes to the regression of the lesion. Spontaneous regression of papillomatosis occurs within six months. However, not everyone's defenses are at such a high level, and then the latent HPV infection turns into an open (manifest) form. Papilloma occurs under the influence of factors such as:
- promiscuous sex life, frequent change of partner;
- contact with a partner with a history of genital papillomatosis;
- the presence of concomitant sexually transmitted infections;
- immunodeficiency states in vitamin deficiency, atopic dermatitis, pregnancy, AIDS;
- frequent colds and SARS;
- hormonal contraception;
- autoimmune diseases;
- smoking and alcohol.
The skin, which is damaged or prone to inflammation, becomes a powerful provoking factor, it ceases to perform a protective function. Therefore, people with inflammatory skin diseases (acne, rash), eczema, dermatitis, psoriasis are at risk.
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis is the most common benign tumor of the larynx. In the respiratory tract, papilloma occurs in any area - from the nasopharynx to the lung parenchyma. But it most often attacks the mucous membrane of the larynx. The severity of the disease is determined by the presence of growths in the narrowest area, which contributes to obstruction of breathing, all the way to suffocation. In adults, it is considered a mandatory precancer due to the high degree of malignancy (degeneration into a malignant tumor). The primary symptom of the disease is usually hoarseness, which then develops into a loss of voice. The patient remains able to speak in whispers. In the first stage, the manifestation of respiratory papillomatosis is sometimes mistaken for acute laryngitis. Therefore, it is impossible to prescribe treatment without endoscopic examination. Various physiotherapy procedures in the area of the larynx lead to the rapid growth of papillomas.
Warts are benign epidermal growths that are mostly encountered by children and adolescents. They develop on the face, arms, neck, often causing their owners a lot of emotional problems. However, more than 70% of these types of papillomas disappear without a trace within 1, 5 - 2 years. Therefore, doctors resort to their removal only in extreme cases, because with the cessation of hormonal changes, it is quite possible that the body will cope with HPV infection on its own. Additional risk factors in childhood are frequent stress associated with learning and taking exams, overload, lack of sleep, malnutrition, sensitive skin in babies, acne in adolescents.
Is it necessary to remove papillomas on the skin
Some neoplasms degenerate into malignant. This process cannot be neglected if the person is careful with himself. It is necessary to sound the alarm if one of the symptoms is detected:
- papilloma changes in size and configuration (grows rapidly, edges are blurred, additional growths and seals are created);
- the color of the neoplasm changes toward darkening;
- the inflammatory process merges, the skin peels, cracks, leaks exudate;
- pain occurs.
All of the above are indications for the removal of growths. It is also worth resorting to a radical method of solving the problem if the papilloma is located in places accessible to everyday injuries (neck, armpits, waist area, etc. ). Constant grazing and rubbing can start the oncological process, and also contribute to the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms.
Methods for removing neoplasms
Destructive methods of treating skin growths are divided into:
- chemicals (80-90% trichloroacetic acid and other drugs);
- physical (plasma coagulation, cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrosurgery).
If removal is expected in adolescents or pregnant women, then only laser therapy is used. After destruction, the use of topical antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs is indicated.
But the main method of eliminating laryngeal papillomas is endolaryngeal surgery under anesthesia using microinstruments or a surgical laser, after which stable remission is recorded in only one third of patients. In practice, a combined approach is used: additional cryodestruction is performed (with a local form of the disease), local antitumor drugs are prescribed. The most common is inhalation with a special solution.