Human papilloma virus (HPV, HPV - human papilloma virus) or papilloma virus is a group of infections that includes more than 100 types of viruses, of which 80 are pathogenic to humans. According to statistics from the World Health Organization, 70% of the world's population are carriers of HPV. In most cases, the infection occurs after the beginning of sexual activity and can be asymptomatic for a long time.
Causes of HPV infection
Symptoms of papilloma virus infection in women can be: various types of warts, flat and genital warts, cervical dysplasia. However, the most dangerous manifestation of the pathology is the development of cervical cancer. There is also evidence linking the development of cancer of the anus, external genitalia, and vagina to infection with certain types of human papilloma virus (HPV 16, 18, 45, 56).
- Sexual contact.Is the main route of transmission of human papilloma virus infection. Using a condom during intercourse significantly reduces the risk of contracting the human papilloma virus, however, it does not provide a reliable guarantee that infection will not occur because the virus particles are very small in size.
- Contact household path.Causes of infection are the use of common products for intimate hygiene: towels, soap, use of public toilet, bath.
- Natural childbirth.HPV can be transmitted to children who become infected when a child passes through the birth canal of an infected woman.
The source of this infection are the cells of the patient's skin and mucous membranes. In that case, the person may not know that he has become a carrier of the virus, because warts and papillomas can be microscopic in size and remain invisible during visual inspection.
Predisposing factors that contribute to the development of viral infection:
- onset of sexual activity at an early age;
- promiscuous sex without the use of condoms;
- frequent miscarriages;
- presence of infectious diseases of the genital organs;
- long-term use of oral contraceptive methods;
- decreased immune response of the body;
- non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene;
- if the sexual partner has HPV;
- exposure to frequent stressful situations;
- bad habits.
Through pores, cracks, microtraumas of the skin and mucous membranes, the virus enters the basal layer of the epithelium, which ensures normal growth and renewal of the skin and mucous membranes. The DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) of the cells of the basal layer carries information about the healthy structure of the cells. The viral particle, embedded in the DNA, changes this information, resulting in the formation of affected cells, which in the process of growth and division cause the symptoms of the disease.
Symptoms of human papillomavirus infection in women
One of the possible manifestations of human papilloma virus infection is the appearance of genital warts and papillomas. These are specific formations that have the appearance of cauliflower, grape clusters or rooster combs, pinkish red or flesh colored. Depending on the type and type of virus, they can infect a person’s skin and mucous membranes.
Genital warts can form around or near the anus, especially if there is anal intercourse.
Papillomas can appear on the skin around the fingers, toes, hands, around the eyes, armpits and scalp. They sometimes form on the soles of the feet and cause characteristic pain when walking.
This type of disease rarely degenerates into a malignant tumor and cancer, however, to prevent the development of the disease, the formations are surgically removed.
Consequences of HPV infection
Human papilloma virus in women can lead to significant increases in genital warts, papillomas, flat warts, which will cause a feeling of discomfort, pain, and when injured, bleeding of varying severity can occur.
Eighteenth and sixteenth type HPVs are the most dangerous because they lead to the development of cancer. Cervical cancer, which is reliably associated with human papillomavirus infection, ranks second among various malignancies in women. The death rate from it reaches fifty percent.
The disease is characterized by the formation of flat plaques that practically do not rise above the level of the skin.
The mucosa of the vagina and cervix is most commonly affected.
The cosmetic defect in them is much smaller than in genital warts.
This type of pathology has a higher risk of degeneration into cancer.
Dysplasia of the cervical mucosa
Pathology is a change in the normal structure of cells in the lining of the cervix, called atypia. This condition is considered precancerous in gynecology and requires observation and intensive treatment.
The disease is in most cases asymptomatic and is detected during a routine examination by a gynecologist. Dysplasia differs in several degrees of severity: mild, moderate, severe. The choice of treatment method depends on the severity.
This is the most dangerous manifestation of the disease. Cervical cancer ranks second among pathologies in women and is associated with HPV infection types 16, 18.
The disease may occur without clinical signs or be manifested by nonspecific symptoms: weakness, increased fatigue, weight loss, the appearance of vaginal bleeding outside the menstrual cycle.
Disease treatment methods
If there are signs of HPV infection, given the risk of sequelae, do not treat on your own.
To select the optimal treatment tactics, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist who will prescribe adequate therapy after a thorough examination and implementation of the necessary tests.
No drugs have been invented to cure HPV so far. The main goal of treatment is to reduce the concentration of the virus in the body to prevent further progression of the disease.
Main areas of therapy:
- treatment of manifestations (warts, papillomas, dysplasia);
- antiviral therapy;
- use of means aimed at increasing immunity.
In the presence of papillomas, genital warts, warts, areas of dysplasia, even small size, it is recommended to remove them, because the presence of neoplasms increases the concentration of viral particles in a woman's body, which contributes to further progression of the pathology.
Methods of removing genital warts, papillomas, warts and dysplasia are as follows:
- surgical; cryotherapy;
- laser coagulation;
- radio wave therapy;
- chemical attack.
The surgical method consists of removing the growth with a scalpel, it is the cheapest method of treatment, but after it there is a pronounced cosmetic defect and the healing period is significantly extended. There is also a risk of secondary infection. Therefore, this type of intervention is used in extreme cases.
During cryotherapy, liquid nitrogen is applied to the affected area and freezes the pathological formation. After a few days, the papillomas or condyloma disappear and a small wound forms under them, which heals in 10-14 days.
Diathermocoagulation is the application of high temperatures to the areas of affected skin. This procedure is quite painful and therefore requires anesthesia. The disadvantage of this method is the formation of rough scars at the site of pathological formations.
During laser coagulation, the effect of laser beams on the affected area leads to drying of the neoplasms. In their place, a dry crust forms, which disappears after a while, leaving no scars. This type of treatment is the most gentle, but its high cost is considered a disadvantage.
Radiowave therapy consists of exposing the affected area to radio frequency waves. By using this type of treatment there is no risk of bleeding, no pronounced scars are created, but the disadvantage is the high cost.
The chemical method is used when there is a small formation. A special medicine is applied to the affected area. After several applications, a crust forms on the treated area, which disappears after a few days.
Drug therapy for human papillomavirus infection involves the use of the following groups of drugs:
- antiviral drugs;
In order to reduce the concentration of the virus in the female body and prevent its further reproduction, a long antiviral therapy is prescribed. Medicines are used in the form of tablets and suppositories, the dosage and duration of the course of treatment should be determined only by the attending physician.
Immunostimulants are prescribed after analysis and detection of reduced levels of immunity in order to increase the body's defenses, accelerate the processes of immune cells and stimulate the production of antibodies aimed at fighting the virus.
Treatment of HPV infection in pregnant women
The presence of human papilloma virus infection in the female body does not affect the reproductive system and is not a contraindication for pregnancy. If worsening of HPV occurs during pregnancy, therapy for this condition is not carried out during that period, and treatment is prescribed after childbirth.
However, a woman must be monitored by a doctor throughout her pregnancy. With the development of severe discomfort, gentle methods of therapy are prescribed. In extreme cases, when there are contraindications for vaginal delivery due to the progression of HPV, a caesarean section is performed.
HPV Solution with Folk Remedies
At home, you can use folk remedies such as herbal decoctions and infusions - to treat papillomatosis, ointments - to get rid of warts, papillomas and warts.
Methods of preparation of decoctions and infusions for the treatment of human papilloma virus infection:
- Horsetail, nettle plant, pomegranate, dandelion root, plantain leaves are mixed in equal amounts. In the 3rd century. l. To the resulting mixture add 800 ml of water, cook for 10 minutes on low heat, then leave to infuse for 3 hours. Apply 1 cup 3 times a day 30 minutes before meals.
- Oregano plant, yarrow, immortelle, St. John's wort, birch buds, nettle, calendula, coltsfoot, burnet root, chamomile flower, twine, plantain leaves, celandine, linden flower, cumin seeds, sage are mixed in equal amounts. Pour 2 tablespoons into a thermos. l. pour the resulting mixture with 500 ml of boiling water, leave to infuse overnight. Take 0, 5 cups 4 times a day.
- Valerian root, lemon balm plant, oregano, linden flowers, hop cones, lemon balm are mixed in equal amounts. Pour 1 tablespoon into a thermos. l. pour the resulting mixture with 0, 5 liters of boiling water and leave to infuse for 3-5 hours. Apply 250 ml 2 times a day.
To treat local manifestations use:
- Celandine juice. The juice is made from fresh leaves or bought at the pharmacy. Before applying the product, the skin of the affected area must be steamed, and healthy areas near the affected area should be treated with an oily cream. Celandine must be carefully applied to the affected skin. The procedure should be repeated every two days for a week until the pathological formation disappears.
- Garlic. The vegetables should be grated on a fine grater and mixed with the skin cream until a viscous consistency is created. Apply the resulting mixture on the areas of formations for 2-3 hours every day for a month. After the procedure, wash your skin with soap and water.
- Young walnuts. They must be crushed using a meat grinder, the resulting mixture is poured into a glass jar of 0, 5 liters so as to fill 2/3, the rest of the dish pour kerosene. Leave to infuse for 20 days, then strain through cheesecloth. Infusion to treat affected skin 2 times a day.
After treatment and removal of external manifestations of HPV, a woman should visit a gynecologist every six months to monitor and prevent further progression of the disease.