There are very few people who would not face such a problem as warts on the body. These shoots can appear on the body in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Warts are usually a cosmetic problem that impairs a person's appearance. And only in rare cases do these formations pose a real threat to health.
What is a nipple?
Our skin has a smooth surface. However, in some cases, protruding growths on the skin may appear on it. They are called warts. These are usually permanent formations that do not change for many years.
The mechanism of wart formation is the growth of the upper layer of the skin. The sizes of the formations range from 1 mm to a few centimeters. This parameter depends on the type of formation and its position on the skin. Fusion of several warts is often observed. The color of the skin shoots is usually flesh, but can take on other shades, such as pink or brown.
Medicine classifies warts as benign neoplasms. They do not grow and do not penetrate the surrounding tissues.
In the International Classification of Diseases, warts are assigned the following codes:
- B07 - viral wart,
- A63. 0 - full nipple,
- L82 Seborrheic keratoma
Most types of warts are viral, sexually transmitted warts are genital, and seborrheic keratomas are senile warts that are not contagious.
The following skin lesions should be distinguished from warts:
- nevi (stains),
- malignant tumors,
- basal cell carcinoma,
- wide warts resulting from syphilis.
Some of these formations can be life-threatening. Therefore, if any suspicious formation appears on the body, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
Why do warts appear?
Usually, a viral infection is the cause of warts. The process of wart formation takes place as follows. The human papilloma virus enters skin cells and causes them to divide rapidly. As a result, a growth or papilloma develops on the skin. However, there are types of warts with which the virus has nothing to do.
Strictly speaking, papilloma does not always occur on the skin. These formations are often found on the mucous membranes, inside the bladder, in the larynx, on the cervix, etc. However, it is common to call warts only papillomas that appear on the skin.
Warts can be found on any part of the body. However, some species have their favorite places. For example, warts usually form in the groin and anus; the chords prefer the folds of skin in the upper body.
The human papilloma virus does not multiply outside the body. However, it can last a long time in warm and humid places. Therefore, people can often become infected with it when visiting baths, saunas, swimming pools. But the virus doesn't live long outdoors - it is neutralized by the sun's ultraviolet radiation.
According to studies, approximately 80% of the world's population is infected with some type of human papilloma virus. There are a total of two hundred strains of these viruses. Some viruses are relatively harmless, others cause papillomas, and others can even cause malignant tumors. Some strains can be transmitted from person to person. Therefore, certain types of warts can be contagious. But the transmission of the disease from frogs and toads, as well as from other representatives of the fauna, contrary to popular belief, is impossible. This is explained by the fact that animal papilloma viruses do not multiply in the human body.
You can become infected with a new type of virus through personal contact, handling, sharing household items (for example, towels), visiting public places (swimming pools, bathrooms, saunas, transportation), small wounds and sexually.
The papilloma virus that has entered the body does not always cause the disease. Usually, the factors associated with the disease are stress, reduced immunity (for example, due to infectious diseases). At the same time, the virus can stay in the body for several years and wait in the wings.
Varieties of warts
Doctors distinguish several types of warts:
- ordinary (vulgar),
- youth (apartment),
- pointed (condyloma),
Birthmarks (nevi) should be separated from this type of wart. Birthmarks usually do not protrude from the surface of the skin and are dark in color, although there are exceptions.
This type of wart occurs in 70% of cases. It is caused by the papilloma virus. Externally, vulgar (ordinary) papillomas look like small semicircular formations on the surface of the skin. They are usually completely painless. The size of the formations is from a few mm to 1 cm, and their surface is usually uneven, bumpy, often resembling the surface of cauliflower. Color - fleshy, grayish, yellowish-brown. Common localizations - hands, face, fingers, lips, knees, elbows. Mucous membranes are rarely affected.
Ordinary papillomas can go away on their own. The peculiarity of this type of papilloma is that they often grow not individually, but in groups. You can often find a large papilloma, around which small ones grow. If you remove the largest (maternal) papilloma, then the small ones disappear.
Common papillomas can occur at any age. They often occur in school-age children.
This type of papilloma usually occurs in children and adolescents. But they can also occur in people of mature age. These papillomas are often called flat papillomas. They make up only 4% of all warts.
I can often find them on hand. They can also be noticed on the feet and face, near the nails, between the toes, on the feet and on the neck. They are often associated with hormonal changes in the body. Like ordinary papillomas, they do not pose a significant danger and can pass on their own. They do not usually cause physical discomfort, but can worsen the appearance.
Flat papillomas are usually flesh-colored and protrude just above the surface of the skin (by about 1-2 mm). They can reach a diameter of 5 mm, but are usually smaller than vulgar. Flat papillomas can occur near wounds and cuts. Usually juvenile papillomas have a smooth surface and uneven, though well-defined borders. Due to the lack of a horny layer on the surface, they can look great.
This is an extremely unpleasant type of skin growth that occurs on the feet. Sometimes they replace them with corns. However, plantar papillomas have a feature that distinguishes them from corns. If the plantar wart is damaged, it will usually bleed. For corns, this phenomenon is not typical. Although externally, papillomas on the legs can look like blisters - they are usually hard and keratinized. Their color is usually dirty gray, dark or dirty yellow with brown. Black dots may appear on their surface.
One plantar wart is most often found on the leg. But they can also meet in groups, as well as grow together. Plantar papillomas grow not only outside the skin, but also deeper.
From the outside, warts of this type can look like ordinary ones. They usually have a semicircular shape. However, if a person constantly develops such a skin formation, it can take on a flattened shape.
The appearance of papillomas on the soles has nothing to do with age: they can appear in both young and old people. These formations can also be observed in children.
Plantar papillomas can cause discomfort and even severe pain when walking. When you step on such a shoot, it seems like you are stepping on a small pebble. From the outside, the nipples can sometimes look like thorns. Therefore, people call this type of papilloma thorns.
At rest, these formations can cause itching. Like other types of papillomas, plantar warts develop under the influence of the papilloma virus. The virus often comes to the skin of the feet from the environment. For example, it is not uncommon for this virus to be caught by visiting a pool without rubber shoes. Uncomfortable shoes also contribute to the formation of skin lesions, as they often occur in places where shoes rub the feet. Heavy sweating and inadequate foot hygiene also contribute to the factors.
It is not recommended to touch the papilloma on the sole with your hands, because that way you can transmit the virus to other areas of the skin.
Plantar wart treatment
Sometimes papillomas of this type can go away on their own. This happens in about half of the cases. But sometimes you have to wait a long time for this moment, and not everyone can afford it, especially if education feels like a painful sensation. If the growth on the foot causes sharp pain, does not allow walking, then you must remove it. Education larger than 1 cm must also be removed. Removal surgery can only be performed in a doctor’s office.
If there is any suspicion that the formation on the leg belongs to any type of papilloma, the doctor can perform a series of diagnostic procedures. These include scraping and analysis of the stratum corneum, PCR analysis for the presence of the papilloma virus genome. An ultrasound scan is performed to determine the shape and size of the formation. Warts on the leg require a differential diagnosis from syphilitic warts. However, extensive diagnostic measures are not usually performed because it is not difficult to diagnose papillomas on the leg.
Sometimes the drug can try to remove the growth on the foot. Preparations with salicylic acid, necrotizing agents, freezing aerosols and special patches are suitable for removing warts. However, drug removal is usually not a quick procedure. You can quickly remove a wart on the sole only with the help of tools available in medical institutions. These can be methods:
- radio wave.
Any type of procedure has its advantages and disadvantages. The surgical method, for example, is used mainly for large skin growths because it severely injures the skin.
This is a special type of wart. They are usually found in the genital area. Their shape is also unusual because they look like papillae (hence their name). However, warts can also have an irregular shape, resembling a cauliflower or a rooster. The viruses that cause this type of wart are usually sexually transmitted. Also, condyloma can be noticed on the mucous membrane, in the anus. Therefore, such warts are often called anogenital or venereal. Condyloma is less common in the armpits, in women under the mammary glands. The warts are fleshy to pink in color. Sometimes several genital warts can grow together. Also, condyloma of this type can grow to large sizes. Warts can cause painful sensations during intercourse, defecation. If they are injured, they may bleed. Women with genital warts can also develop cervical cancer.
This type of wart is extremely common. Filiform warts or accords often grow in large groups. Prefer accords for areas with thin skin. This is the area of the armpits, neck, shoulders, eyelids, wings of the nose. It can occur in the groin area, below the mammary glands in women. They don’t usually bother a person and don’t hurt her, but they can itch.
On the outside, the filamentous nipples resemble long strands. However, there are often accordes that have a thin filiform stem to which a thick body is attached, usually spherical or hemispherical. They are also threads. Such warts are called drooping.
Most warts of this type have a size of 1 mm to 5 mm. There are also chords larger than 1 cm. Sometimes several filamentous warts grow together.
Accords are rare in children. They are typical for people over the age of 35. And with age, their number usually increases. Among people older than 70, this type of wart is observed in 100%. The tendency to have a large number of acrochords on the body can also be inherited. Accords are often associated with being overweight. In women, they can occur during pregnancy.
Fibrous warts have one unpleasant feature. If the filamentous wart is torn off, a new one will soon grow in its place. Accords rarely go by themselves. Their appearance is enhanced by increased sweating, reduced immunity.
This type of wart has another name - seborrheic keratoma. It usually occurs in people older than 60 years. Unlike other types of warts, senile keratomas are not caused by the human papilloma virus. The exact reasons for their occurrence have not been determined. Keratomas are most likely associated with age-related changes in the body. They develop from the basal layer of the epidermis, which is why they are often called basal cell papillomas. Although this is not a completely accurate name, because real papillomas are caused only by viruses. Heredity plays a significant role in the emergence of these neoplasms. Senile keratomas can often resemble melanoma. Therefore, if they occur, it is necessary to consult a doctor so that he can diagnose. However, senile keratomas usually do not require treatment and do not turn into malignant tumors.
On the outside, keratomas look like pink or yellowish papules 1-2 mm thick. Their size ranges from 2 mm to 3 cm. Occasionally warts of this type reach a size of 4-6 cm. Keratomas have an oily crust that is easily removed. Their surface is uneven, as if it is wavy. Growing up, keratomas often become like mushroom caps, and their color changes to black or dark brown. Their surface becomes hard, they can crack.
Keratomas are most commonly found on the neck and chest. It can be observed in groups. They occur less frequently on the hands and face. They do not exist on the mucous membranes. There are usually no more than 20 keratomas on the body. If a person has a lot of senile warts, it is often due to hereditary factors.
Senile keratomas do not go away on their own. People with an excessive amount of seborrheic keratomas on the body are advised to increase the amount of vitamin C in their diet to prevent new growth. You should also avoid exposure to direct sunlight, overheating, hypothermia, stress.
Most papillomas do not pose a serious threat. However, after an injury they can hurt, bleed. After that, there is a risk of developing malignant tumors. Although it is in papillomas and keratomas, the risk of malignant transformation is much lower than in moles.
Papillomas are usually treated by removal (surgically, with the help of cold, high frequency electric current or laser). Therapeutic treatments are usually less effective.
The indication for removal is the pain of the skin formation, its large size, bleeding, change of shape, place in an uncomfortable place (for example, on the tip of the toe, on the soles, in the genital area), aesthetic considerations. Warts are also subject to removal.